Glossary of Computer Terms Print


A | B | C | D | E | F | G | HI | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | VW | XYZ 

Absolute address - Refers to the actual location of data in its storage medium.

Absolute Zero - Is the temperature where atomic motion ceases.

Abstract Data Type - A structure that encapsulates data and functions.

AC - Refers to Alternating Current.

ACCA - Refers to Automatic Cloud Cover Assessment.

Access - Refers to the ability to aquire, read, or write. There may be varying levels of access. May also refer to the method that data is aquired. See sequential and random access.

Access Time - Refers to the amount of time taken to begin aquiring data.

Accumulator - Refers to a register unit used to store the results of logic or arthmatic operations.

Accuracy - Refers to a measurement of the average correctness of data or an equation. See variance.

ACK or ack - Refers to acknowledgement.

Acquisition of Signal - Refers to the time at which a radio or microwave signal is first received from a satellite. In most cases this happens the instance after it rises over the horizon.

Action - Refers to the activity resulting from a given a condition in a decision table.

Active Channel - Refers to a data line which is in use or has a live stream.

Active Document - Is a document that employs technologies such as DHTML, javascript, visual basicscript or CSS. Once an active document is downloaded it is run by the client's browser program.

Active Matrix Display - Refers to a type of LCD that uses thin film transitors for monitors. Here, each transitor can be turned on or off.

ACU - See Accumulator.

Ada - Is a language descended from Pascal.

Adder - Is a register that sums two numbers. There are many different variations; a few examples are full, ripple-carry, skip-carry and select adders.

Address - Refers to a location in a storage medium. Addresses most frequently refer to a locations in RAM.

Address Format - Refers to the specifications used to describe a memory location.

Address Modification - Refers to the changing of an address of an instruction word during multi-itterative or recursive loops.

Address Register - Is a group of flip-flops capable of storing a memory address and gates capable of storing a memory address.

Ad-hoc Group - Refers to a comittee formed for one specific purpose.

ADP - Refers to Automatic Data Processing or Automated Data Processing.

ADSL - Is an Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (DSL).

Advanced Research Projects Agency Network - Refers to a network developed in the late 1960s by the United States Department of Defense as an experiment in wide-area-networking that would survive a large scale war. Originally it was used mainly for email. Since then it has grown into what is now known as the internet. See Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

AGE - Refers to Aerospace Ground Equipment.

Agent - Refers to an intelligent or semi-intelligent automation.

AHG - Refers to an Ad-Hoc Group.

AI - Refers to Artificial Intelligence.

Albert Einstien - Is a scientist famed for his theory of general relativity and his studies of nuclear physics.

Alphanumeric - Refers to a character within the Alphanumeric Character Set.

Alphanumeric Character Set - Is a set of symbols from to the standard alphabet, A-Z, and the digits 0 through 9. Mathematical operators such as +,-,/,punctuations and other symbols are excluded from this set.

ALU - See Arithmetic Logic Unit. - ALU may also Refer to the Association of LISP Users.

AM - Refers to Amplitude Modulation.

AMI - Refers to Access Method Interface or an Active Microwave Instrument.

AND - Refers to a logical condition that describes two statements which are both true.

Anomalistic Period - Is the time elapsed between two successive perigees of a satellite orbit.

Anonymizer or Anonymous Service - Is an application which masks or cloaks the identity of the visitor.

ANSI - Is the American National Standards Institute.

AOS - Refers to Acquisition of Signal.

API, APIs - Are Application Programming Interfaces.

Apogee - Is the point in a satellite's orbit where it is at its greatest distance from its body of rotation.

Applet or Applets - Refer to Java programs which are embedded in web pages.

Application Program - Is software which performs a specific task or function. Examples are spreadsheets, word processing, graphics, and sound. Application programs differ from Operating Systems or Utility software programs which tend to be broader in scope.

APPROX - Refers to approximately or is an approximation.

Arg - Refers to a single argument.

Args - Refer to multiple arguments.

Arguments - Refers to the variables passed to a process. Arguments are often stored in a global program array.

ARIN - Is the American Registry of Internet Numbers.

Arithmetic Logic Unit - Refers to a device used for logical and arithmetic operations within a computer.

ARP - Is the Address Resolution Protocol. It is used to map an IP address to a physical hardware (MAC) address.

ARPA - See Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

ARPANet - See Advanced Research Projects Agency Network.

Array - A grouping of similar types of data, referenced as sequential locations. The absolute locations of items in an array may not truely be sequential in a managed memory enviroment. Some different types are strings and multidimensional arrays.

Ars Conjectandi - See Jakob Bernoulli.

Ascending Node - Refers to the sub-satellite point of a pass where the satellite crosses the equator from the Southern Hemisphere into the Northern Hemisphere.

ASCII - Refers to the American Standard Code for Information Interchange Association. ASCII is also used to describe documents using the plain text format. When transferring files in ASCII mode only the first 7 bits of each byte are sent; in some circumstances the eighth bit may be used for error detection.

ASK - Refers to Amplitude-shift Keying.

Assembler or Assembler - Refers to the complier and or the linker of assembly language code.

Assembly or Assembly - Is one of the most simple computer languages. It is compiled by an assembler.

ASM or asm - Refers to the assembly language or code pertaining to the assembly language. May also refer to the assembler.

ASNs - Are Autonomous System Numbers.

Association of Lisp Users - Is a group that promotes the List Processing language, and keeps LISP programmers informed and up to date.

ASP - Refer to Active Server Page or Active Server Pages. Also, ASP may refer to Application Service Provider.

ATC - Refers to Absolute Time Command.

ATM - Is Asynchronous Transfer Mode. It often refers to networks.

ATS - Refers to Absolute Time Sequence.

autoexec.bat or AUTOEXEC.BAT file - Is a text file which contains commands which run after the config.sys file. The AUTOEXEC.BAT file is not necessary to boot MS-DOS.

Automatic Data Processing - Refers to computer aided storing, manipulating or processing of information, requiring minimal or no human interaction.

Automatic Programming - See Rapid Application Developement.

Automation - Is a self-controlling or self-moving processes.

B - Return to Index

B8ZS - Refers to Bipolar 8 Zero Substitution.

Backtracking - Is a method for reaching a series of sub-goals. Each sub-goal may have multiple solutions and the solution chosen for each sub-goal may affect the choice of solutions for later goals.

To reach the final goal, the computer must first find a solution to the first sub-goal and then, with recursion, attempt solve the other pre-final goals based on this first evaluation. If it is impossible to reach the final goal given the current path, or if all possible solutions are needed, the computer backtracks and tries the next possible solution to its first sub-goal and to its next, etc. It stops backtracking when there are no more paths to traverse.

Backup - Refers to a copy of a program, file, or data base. It also refers to the process of producing a copy.

Bandwidth - Is a measurement of the capacity of a transmission system. It is typically measured in Hertz.

Barrel Shifters - Refers to hardware devices that can rotate a word by any number of bits in a single operation.

Base Address - Refers to the genesis address for a sequence. A base address may refer to the zero point on a stack.

Base - Refers to the beginning of a sequence or the radix of a number.

bash - Is the Bourne Again Shell. Works with the unix sh but provides for many enhancements found in the C and Korne Shells.

bat or BAT - Refers to Batch.

Batch File - Is an ASCII text file which contains a series of commands. These commands run sequentially.

Baud Rate - Refers to the speed of data transmission.

BEST® Pricing - Is a sophisticated pricing algorithm and methodology. It sifts and compares live actual prices when available. If live market prices are not available, then it jumps to a dynamic, sequential and hierarchical pricing module which generates fair price estimates for evaluation and trading purposes.

BCC - Is a Binary Coded Character.

BCD - Is a Binary Coded Decimal.

BDD - Is a Binary Decision Diagram.

BE - Refers to Best Estimate.

Bernoulli Trials - Is a set of Independent Events where each event has a probability of success and a probability of failure. These probabilities of success or failure are the same for each event in the set. A success or failure is mutually exclusive. A good example is the tossing of a 'fair' coin 5 times. Each time the coin is tossed it has 50% chance of heads and a 50% chance of tails. Thus the first time the coin is tossed it has a 50% chance of being heads. The second time there is a 25% chance of both coins being heads. The third a 12% likelihood of three heads. The fourth a 6% probability all heads; and finally for the fifth a 3% probability that all tosses result in heads.

Best-First - Is an algorithm that uses heuristic data to expand the most promising node in a search path.

Bidirection Shift Register - Refers to hardware devices that can rotate a word clockwise (right) or counter-clockwise (left) in a single operation.

bios or BIOS - Refers to Basic Input/Output System. This information is stored as programs on a ROM chip.

bin - Refers to binary or binaries.

Binary Decision Diagram - Is also often refered to as a Rooted Directed Acyclic Graph. By reducing a decision tree through eliminating all equal subexpressions we are left with a set of expressions that when represented as a DAG become a Binary Decision Diagram.

Bit - Is the basic unit of digital communication.

bitrate - Is the speed in which data is transfered relative to bits. This is often expressed in bits per second or bits per minute.

BITS - Is the Banking Industry Technology Secretariat.

Black-Box Testing - Refers to hardware or software testing that involves computer automated tests. See White-Box Testing.  

BLOWFISH or Blowfish - Refers to a data encryption algorithm.

bmp - Refers to a bitmap image or a bitmap image file. This acronym is sometimes pronounced "bump."

BNF - Refers to Backus-Naur Form.

Body of Rotation - Refers to an object that a satellite orbits.

bot - Refers to a robot or an agent.

boolean expression - Is a statement which is either true or false.

bps - Refers to Bits per Second.

Browser or Browsers - Refer to programs or software which enable a person to view or surf the web.

BSD - Refers to the Berkley Sockets Distribution.

BSP - Is Binary Space Partitioning or a Binary Space Partition Tree.

BTB - Refers to "Buy the Book."

BTW - Refers to "By the Way."

Bucket - Refers to a grouping or mass storage. Computer memory is often said to be a bucket of bits.

Byte - Is composed of eight bits. A byte can contain one ASCII character.

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CA - Refers to a Certificate Authority.

Cache - Refers to a storage area which holds data in order to expedite data retrievals and usage. For example, a computer may cache BIOS instructions in faster performing RAM after extracting them from ROM code.

CADU - Refers to a Channel Access Data Unit.

Canonical - Is to abide by the rules. In computer science and mathamatics this often refers to the way a formula or algorithm is written. When written in a standard way a function is said to be of canonical order.

Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection - Refers to an access technique for LANS where workstations connected to the same channel can detect transmissions on that channel and que their transmission while the channel is in use.

CASE - Refers to Computer Aided Software Engineering.

CCITT - Refers to the Consultative Committee for International Telephony and Telegraphy or to the Comite Consultatif International de Telegraphique et Telephonique. See ITU-TSS.

CCSDS - Refers to the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems.

CDAS - Refers to a Command and Data Acquisition Station.

CSMA/CD - Is Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection.

CDR - Refers to a CD-Recorder or CD-Recordable.

CD-Recordable - Refers to a blank compact disk.

CD ROM or CD-ROM - Refers to Compact Disk - Read Only Memory which uses optical technology.

CDMA - Refers to Code Division Multiple Access.

CERT - Refers to the Computer Emergency Response Team.

CGA - Refers to a Color Graphics Adapter.

cgi or CGI - Refers to Common Gateway Interface.

Child - Is or refers to a process, frame, class or window that has been spawned by a parent window, frame, class or process.

Children - See Child.

CI - Refers to a Confidence Interval.

CIC - Refers to a CPU Interupt Code.

CIO - is a Chief Information Officer.

CIR - Refers to Committed Information Rate.

Circular Polarization - Is a method of radio energy emission where the electric and magnetic field vectors rotate about the central axis of radiation. See Left Hand Circular Polarization and Right Hand Circular Polarization.

CIU - Refers to a Controls Interface Unit.

Class - A definition of an Abstract Data Type in C++.

CLSID - Refers to Class Indentifier.

CLT - Refers to Central Limits Theorm.

CLTU - Refers to a Command Link Transmission Unit.

Cluster or Clusters - Is when several servers are interconnected to balance a load on a network. Processes a delegated to CPUs on spearate servers and they work together as one larger system.

CMOS - Is a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor.

CMS - Refers to Cable Management System.

CMTS - Refers to Cable Modem Termination System.

CNF - Refers to Clausal Normal Form. CNF may also refer to the Conjunctive Normal Form.

COAMS - Refers to Customer Owned and Maintained Systems.

COBOL - Is the Common Business Oriented Language.

codec or CODEC - Refers to Compression/Decompression software or functions.

COM - Refers to The Component Object Model.

Comite Consultatif International de Telegraphique et Telephonique - See International Telecommunications Union - Telecommunications Standards Sector.

complete binary tree - Refers to a decision tree where all branches, with the exception of the bottom, are completely filled with nodes.

Computer Aided Software Engineering - Refers to automated programming tools. These tools often use an object orientated visual development enviroment.

config.sys or CONFIG.SYS File - Is executed before commands in the autoexec.bat file are when a computer operating MS-DOS is booted. It should be noted that this file is not essential to start MS-DOS but serves as a simplifying text of commands which load features such as device drivers.

Conjuncation - Is to be joined. Conjunction refers to a logical AND. Conjunction contrasts with disjunction.

Constructor - Is a function that instanciates a class.

Contention Access - See Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection.

Conventional Memory - Refers to the fist 640 KB of RAM, particularly within the context of MS-DOS programs. There are programs which can modify this standard.

Cookie or Cookies - Is a file or an object that contains information about a user's or client's preferences, identification or other information. Cookies can be used simply to store information about portfolios or shopping items. Cookies can also store information about where, how often, when, and other aspects of a client's movements within a site or across the web. Cookies can be accessed by a server.

CORBA - Refers to the Common Object Request Broker Architecture a OOP standard developed by the Object Management Group.

CPU or CPUs - Refer to a single or multiple Central Processing Units.

crash recovery - Refers to methods of restoring data after a system has halted. When applied to FTP crash recovery refers to resume functionality.

CRC - Is a Cyclic Redundancy Check.

CSA - Refers to a Celestial Sensor Assembly.

CTO - is a Chief Technology Officer.


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DARPA - Is the Defense Applied Research Projects Agency.

Database - Is a repository for information or data. Databases are often indexed so that they may be searched more efficiently.

db - Refers to Decibels.

DB - is a Database.

dc or DC - Refers to Direct Current.

DDE - Refers to the process of Dynamic Data Exchange.

DEK - Is a Data Encryption Key.

Descending Node - Refers to the sub-satellite point of a satellite pass when the satellite crosses the equator from the Northern Hemisphere into the Southern Hemisphere.

Decision - Is a determination of future action.

Decision Tree - Is a listing of all the possible outcomes of an expression. Typically decision trees are for boolean expressions.

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency - Is the core research and development organization for the Department of Defense.

Definite Clause Grammar - Is a varation of the Backus-Naur Form.

Demoivre, Abraham - He was a French mathmatician who fled to England in 1685. He is famed for devising the Central Limits Theorems, which justify the use of normal approximations. He also created the first known table that shows the present value of a lifelong annuity.

Deep Thought™ - Refers to a trademark intelligent search engine technology developed by Oasis Global Inc.

Destructor - Is a function that destroys an object.

Device or Devices - Is a broad term. It can refer to computers, printers, modems, monitors, appliances, or other units which operate on chips.

DFS - refers to Depth First Search.

DHCP - Is the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.

DHTML - Is Dynamic Hyper Text Markup Language.

DIB - Is a Device Independent Bitmap.

Digital Signal - Is a signal defined by patterns of binary impulses of electrons. Some examples of digital signals are EIA, NRZ-L, NRZI, and HDLC.

DII - Dynamic Invoaction Interface.

DIMM - Refers to Dual In-Line Memory Module. It is a small circuit board that contains DRAM chips and connects to the system board.

DIP Switch - Is a Dual-In-line Package Switch.

Disjunction - Refers to a logical OR. Disjunction contrasts with conjunction.

Disjunctive Normal Form - Refers to an order of logical equations where there is a disjunction of conjunctions and no conjunction contains a disjunction. For example the DNF of ((A OR B) AND C) would be ((A AND C) OR (B AND C)).

DIX Ethernet - Refers to the original ethernet developed by Digital, Intel and Xerox.

dll or DLL - Is a Dynamic Link Library or Dynamic Loaded Libraries

DM - Refers to Delta Modulation.

DMA - Is Direct Memory Access. A DMA channel permits specified types of data transfers between RAM and a device to bypass a microprocessor.

DNA - Is "Does Not Apply."

DNF - Refers to Disjunctive Normal Form.

DCNNF - Refers to Decomposable Negation Normal Form.

DNS - Is the Domain Name Server.

DOC - Refers to the Department of Commerce. DOC may also refer to documentation or manuals.

DOD - Is the Department of Defense.

DOJ - Is the Department of Justice.

down - See shutdown.

Download or Downloads - Is the transfer of data, information or files from a remote site to a local site. Often viewed in terms of a local user or programmer receiving files, software, data, information, or other digitized signals hosted at a remote server.

DRAM - Refers to Dynamic Random Access Memory.

DSA - Refers to a Directory System Agent.

DSL - Is a Digital Subscriber Line.

DSN - Is a Deep Space Network.

DSP - Refers to Digital Sound Processing or Digital Signal Processing.

DTE - Is Data Terminal Equipment.

DUA - Is a Directory User Agent.

Dual-In-line Package Switch - These are often used to set IRQ and DMAs for modems, video cards, sound cards and other slot add ins. They often function like flip-flops connected to a multiplexor, but may be connected to multiple multiplexors and/or other devices. DIPs are common on EISA or VESA cards and are rare on PCI cards with plug and play compatibility.

Dual Scan Display - Is a type of LCD that is partitioned into two parts. Each part is simultaneously scanned. This improves contrast and reduces shadowing effects.

DVD - Refers to Digital Video Disk. It is a format for viewing and storing movies or data and can refer to the disk itself.


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EAGE - Is Electrical Aerospace Ground Equipment.

ECD - Refers to an Enhanced Color Display.

ECOMMERCE, E-commerce, or E-COMMERCE - Is business conducted over the internet. Popular applications include but are not limited to: licensing software, selling music and books, financial market transactions, and universal learning.

ECP - Refers to Extended Capabilities Port.

Eccentricity - Refers to a factor used to describe the geometric shape of an ellipsis or an elliptical orbit. As eccentric approaches 0 the shape approaches that of a circle as eccentricity approaches 1 the shape approaches a straight line.

EDC - Is the EROS Data Center.

EDP - Refers to Electronic Data Processing.

EEO - Refers to an Elliptical Earth Orbit.

EEPROM - Refers to Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory..

EFF - Refers to Electronic Frontier Foundation. It is an organization dedicated to "protecting rights and promoting freedom on the electronic frontier."

EGA - Refers to an Enchanced Graphics Adapter.

EIDE - Refers to Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics.

EISA - Is the Extended Industry Standard Architecture.

Elliptical Earth Orbit - Refers to orbits that the satellite path describes an ellipse with the Earth at one focus.

ELV or ELVs - Refer to Expendable Launch Vehicles.

EMC - Refers to Electro-Magnetic (electromagnetic) Compatibility.

EMI - Refers to Electro-Magnetic (electromagnetic) Interference.

EMM - Is an Expanded Memory Manager. This software utility helps to emulate memory greater than the conventional memory limitation of 640KB.

EMS - Is Expanded Memory Specification.

emu - Is an emulator.

emulator - Refers to a computer program that simulates another system or CPU.

Encrypts or Encryption - Refers to the coding of information which conceals its ready usage or transparency. Encryption is viewed as necessary for transmitting sensitive information such as financial, medical, personal, corporate, legal, military, governmental, and other dimensions of an individual or institution.

End to End - Is a characteristic of a protocol that operates on the origin and the final destination, but not on any intermediaries.

EOS - Refers to an Earth Observing System.

EOSDIS - Refers to an EOS Data and Information System.

EPP - Refers to Enhanced Parallel Port. This design improves bi-directional data flows. SCSI adapters and networks are two examples that make use of this feature.

EPS - Refers to the Encapsulated Postscript. See postscript.

EROS - Refers to an Earth Resource Observation System.

ESD - Refers to Electro-Static (electrostatic) discharge.

ESDI - Is an Enhanced Small/System Device Interface.

ESQL - Refers to the Enhanced Sequential Query Language.

Ethernet - Refers to a LAN using CSMA/CD access and a shared bus. Traditional ethernet, 10-BaseT, operates at a theoretical maximum throughput of 10Mbps. Fast Ethernet, 100-BaseT, operates at a theoretical maximum of 100Mbps.

EU - Is an Engineering Unit.

Exclusive OR - A logical condition where the either the first statement is true or the second. Both facts are not true and both are not false. Exculsive OR is synonymous with NOT AND.

Expanded Memory - Refers to usable RAM in excess of 1 MB. Not all applications can run or take advantage of this expanded memory.

Expansion Bus - Is the capacity of the microprocessor to communicate with controllers for peripheral devices. These devices include hard drives and keyboards.

Expression Tree - See Decision Tree.

Extended Memory - Refers to RAM above 1 Meg.

External Cache - Refers to a RAM cache using SRAM instead of DRAM chips. This enables the microprocessor to retrieve data more quickly than from RAM.

Eyeballs or Eye Balls - Refers colloquially to the number of viewers at a site.

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FAC - Refers to Full Aperture Calibration.

FAT - Is the File Allocation Table. It is a file system structure utilized by MS-DOS for organizing and tracking file storage.

FAQ - Refers to Frequently Asked Questions.

FAX - Is a facsimile or a facsimile device.

FCC - Is the Federal Communications Commission.

FDF - Is a Flight Dynamics Facility.

FDMA - Refers to Frequency Division Multiple Access.

Financial Glossary - Go to Barkley's OASIS® Comprehensive Financial Glossary Financial, Investing, Portfolio and Risk Management Terms.

Flash Memory - Refers to a type of EEPROM chip that can be reprogrammed. This reprogramming is often executed from a utility program.

Flip-Flops - Refer to switches each capable of storing a bit of information.

Float - Is a floating point number.

floor or floor() - Is a function that rounds data down.

FLOPS - Refers to floating point opperations per second.

FM - Refers to Frequency Modulation.

FOIA - Refers to the Freedom of Information Act.

FOM - Is a Flight Operations Manager.

Foriegn Exchange Application Program Interface™ - Is a set of commands and functions that allow programmers to integrate live currency exchange rates into their programs.

FORMATS - Is a FDF Orbital and Mission Aids Transformation System.

FOT - Is a Flight Operations Team.

FPU - Is a Floating Point Processor.

FPS or fps - Refers to frames per second.

FPU - Is a Floating Point Unit.

FORTRAN - Refers to the Formula Translation Language where problems are expressed in algabraic notation.

FOT - Is a Flight Operations Team.

Frames - Refers to the partitioning of a site's page into two or more viewable segments. These framed segments can be independently viewed or scrolled.

The underlying structure of a packet that is delivered across a network. Frame headers typically store information suchs as the source and destination of the encapsulated data.

Frames may also refer to structure of data stored in memory or a single still from a movie or animation.

Frames Per Second - is a measurement used to convey the speed of a video or motion picture. FPS is often used to measure the smoothness of real time rendered computer graphics, a higher frame rate is associated with higher quality. Higher frame rates require more bandwith for pre-rendered graphics.

Frequency Division Multiple Access - Refers to an access technique for a network where nodes connected to the same channel can pass multiple signals simultaneously through the process of frequency band discrimination. Satellites and their ground stations commonly use this protocol.

FSK - Refers to Frequency-shift Keying.

FSW - Is a Flight Software.

FTP - Refers to File Transfer Protocol.

function member - See member function.

Fuzzy Logic - Refers to a computational approach where answers are expressed as probabilities or percentages of truth. As opposed to boolean logic where answers or true or false.

FXAPI™ - The Foriegn Exchange Application Program Interface.

FYI - Is For Your Information.


G: - Return to Index

gawk - Is the GNU implemention of AWK.

GCM - Refers to a Ground Control Message.

GCMR - Refers to a Ground Control Message Request.

GenSAA - Refers to a Generic Spacecraft Analyst Assistant.

GEO, GEOs, or GEOS - Refer to Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellites.

Geo-center - Is the center of the Earth.

gif or GIF - Is the Graphics Interchange Format.

Giga - Refers to billion or billions.

Giovanni Domenico Cassini - He was the first known observer of Saturn's four moons and discovered the gap in Saturn's rings now known as the Cassini division.

GIS - Refers to Geographic Information System or Geographic Information Systems.

GIS also refers to Global Information System or Global Information Systems.

GMT or G.M.T. - Is Greenwich Mean Time.

GN - Is a Ground Network.

GOES - Refers to a Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite.

GOSIP - Refers to the Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile.

Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile - Is a subset of OSI standards idiomatic to U.S. Government management. GOSIP was developed to increase compatability in areas where OSI standards are compliacted or unclear.

GPF - Is a General Protection Fault. This is a very serious error found in some Windows® software. It has potential to cause dataloss, program crashes and resource corruption.

GPS - Refers to a Global Positioning Satellite or Global Positioning System.

GRAMS™ - Is the Global Risk Analysis and Management System. See RAMS®.

Ground Track or ground-track - Refers to the imaginary line drawn on the Earth's surface by the sub-satellite points of the satellite's orbit.

GSFC - Is the Goddard Space Flight Center.

GTAS - Refers to a Generic Trend Analysis System.

GUI - Refers to Graphic User Interface or Graphical User Interface. This interface uses symbols, images or icons rather than text.

GUID or GUIDs - Refer to Globally Unique Identifiers.


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h - Refers to Hexadecimal. This is a base-16 numbering system that is often used in programming. Typically, it identifies or references addresses in the RAM and I/O memory.

halt - Refers to the process of stopping a system computer. Halt may also refer to a step in an algorithm.

Hang Time - Refers to a visitor's viewing presence at a site. Usually, long viewing times are considered more valuable.

Hard Copy - Refers to data in a physical medium. Typically refers to a printout or book as opposed to information in thought or RAM.

Steven Hawkings PhD. See Steven Hawkings.

HDLC - Refers to a High Level Data Link Control.

Heap - It is where data piles up.

Heap Dump - Refers to a listing of the data and memory addresses in the Heap.

Hertz - Is a unit of measurement equal to 1 oscillation per second.

Heuristic estimate - Refers to an alogorthim that attempts to estimate the distance between a current node and the goal node within a state/search space.

Hits, HITs, or HITS - Refers to activity at a site. This seemingly simple statistic can mean many different things. It can refer to visitors, unique visitors, unique Internet Hosts or Networks, number of pages viewed, number of all visuals on a page, and so on.

Host or Hosts - Refer to the parties which actually carry a site's files or information on their servers.

Hot Swapping - Is when a device is enclosed in an enclosure (often called a rack) that allows the device to be removed while the computer system using it remains in operation. This is done by providing a signal to the computer's I/O controller so the device appears to be connected (on-line) while it is being replaced.

Hot swapping in combination with RAID technology and frequent backups provides improved disk performance and reduces down-time due to drive failure. This is because the entire system does not need to be shutdown in order to replace a faulty device.

HPSS - refers to a High Performance Storage System.

HTML - Is Hyper Text Markup Language.

http or HTTP - Refers to Hyper Text Transfer Protocol or Hyper Text Transport Protocol.

HUP - Refers to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principal. HUP also refers to Hang-up.

Hz - Refers to Hertz.


I: - Return to Index

IA - Refers to an Intelligent Archive. It may also refer to an Intelligent Agent.

IAB - Refers to the Internet Architecture Board, previously known as the Internet Activities Board.

IANA - Is the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.

IAS - Is an Image Assessment System.

ICANN - Is the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers.

ICD - Refers to an Interface Control Document.

ICMP - Refers to the Internet Control Message Protocol. It is an error detection protocol used on the internet. It is also used by programs such as ping and traceroute.

ICON, ICONs, or ICONS - Are pictorial or graphical images which when activated start a process or attempt a link or connection.

IDE - Refers to Integrated Drive Electronics.

IEFT - Is the Internet Engineering Task Force.

iFM™ or IFM™ - Refers to Internet Fund Manager. This is a software system created by OASIS™ for the development of financial internet sites. It provides methods to create online financial tables, indices, portfolios and more.

If-then-else Normal Form - is a boolean expression that only consists of if-then-else operators and the true and false constants 1, and 0.

IGS - Is an International Ground Station.

IIRV - Refers to an Improved Interrange Vector.

Independent Events - Are events where knowing the outcome of one does not affect the probability of the other. An example is two separate coin tosses. The first toss resulting in a heads situation does not effect the probability of the second toss.

INF - Refers to If-then-else Normal Form.

int - is an Integer. Sometimes it is implemented in various programming languages as meaning a whole number.

Intelligent Backtracking - Refers to an optimization within the backtracking algorithm that remembers the dependencies between sub-goals and only re-evaluates those dependents of a changed goal solution.

Interdimensional - Refers to an object, device or data that exists inbetween dimensions.

Interlacing - Refers to the technique of increasing video resolution by updating (refreshing) alternate horizontal lines on the screen. Interlacing can cause screen flicker which is particularly noticeable when viewing a monitor via television. Noninterlaced video adapters avoid this viewing issue.

Interleaving - Refers to the way sectors on a hard drive or disk are arranged. It can also refer to the way memory such as DRAM is organized. In both cases its purpose is to improve efficiency.

International Telecommunications Union - Telecommunications Standards Sector - Refers to the organization formally known as the CCITT, which is now part of the ITU. The ITU-TSS makes technical recommendations for telephone and data communications systems.

Internet - Refers to a public usage, audience, or accessibility or posting.

Internet Activities Board - See Internet Architecture Board.

Internet Architecture Board - Is the organization that originally developed the internet protocols. These protocols are now handled by the IESG. IAB, part of the Internet Society, handles management responsabilities of the Internet Engineering Task Force, Internet Engineering Steering Group, Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, and Request For Comments Editing with the input of the Industry Organization for Standards. The Internet Architecture Board, as its name suggests, is responsable for oversight of the Internet Standard Protocols. To visit their website click here

Internet Research Task Force - Is an organization of the Internet Architecture Board that approaches long-term Internet issues with theory and hypotheses.

Internet Research Steering Group - Is the governing body of the Internet Research Task Force.

Intranet - Refers to a private or internal usage, audience, accessibility, or posting.

Inverter - Refers to a device that reverses a signal by performing a logical NOT.

I/O or IO - Refers to Input/Output. Examples of I/O devices are keyboards and printers.

IP, IPs, or IPS - Refer to Internet Protocol Numbers.

IP is the system or protocol on which the internet is based. It defines the format of the packets and mechanics behind their routing from their source(s) to destination(s).

IRC - Refers to Internet Relay Chat.

IRSG - Refers to the Internet Research Steering Group.

IRTF - Is the Internet Research Task Force.

IRQ - Refers to Interrupt Request. Peripheral connections are assigned IRQ numbers.

ISDN - Refers to Integrated Services Digital Network.

ISO - Is the International Organization for Standardization. Sometimes, it is referred to as the International Standards Organization.

ISO 9000 - Is a set of international standards for both quality management and quality assurance that has been adopted by countries worldwide.

The standards require:

a standard language for documenting quality processes
a system to provide proof that these practices are instituted throughout an organisation
and third-party auditing
According to ISO 9000 products are classified into these categories:

processed materials
and services
The central ideas behind ISO 9000 compliance is documentation (writing) and follow through (doing).

ISO 9660 - Is the International Organization for Standardizations standard defining a file system used by compact discs.

ISP, ISPs, or ISPS - Are the Internet Service Providers.

ISVs - Are Independent Software Vendors.

IT - Refers to Information Technology.

ITU-TSS - Refers to the International Telecommunications Union - Telecommunications Standards Sector.

J  - Return to Index

Jakob Bernoulli - Was a professor of Mathamatics at Basel in Switzerland. Bernoulli was the author of a book "Ars Conjectandi" which contains some of the ideas and priciples used within Probability Theory. Thus, one of the fundamental concepts of probability theory, the Bernoulli Trial, is named after him.

James Stirling - Was a Scottish Mathmatician who, because of his political beliefs, was forced to leave Oxford and moved to Venice. From Greece he published papers in London with the help of Sir Issac Newton. Newton in the late 1720s helped Stirling return to England. Stirling is famed for his formula for approximating large numbers and for surveying the River Clyde.

Java or JAVA - Is an object oriented programming language. It was intended to be platform independent.

JDK - Refers to Java Developers Kit or Java Development Kit.

jpeg or JPEG - Is the Joint Picture Experts Group. It refers to a graphics format often used for photographs or subtle, multicolor images.

Johannes Kepler - Is credited with discovering the three laws of planetary motion. He also showed us how logarithms work. Kepler demonstrated a method of calculating the volumes of solids basis revolutions.

JPL - Is the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

K: - Return to Index

Kepler, Johannes - See Johannes Kepler.

K - Refers to 1,000. See Kilo or See Kilobyte.

KB - See Kilobyte.

kb - See Kilobits.

kbs - Refers to Kilobits per second.

Kerberos - Is a security system based on symmetric key cryptography.

Kermit - Is a common program used for transfering files and terminal emulation. It is available from Columbia University.

Kilo - Refers to 1,000.

Kilobit or Kilobits - Is 1,000 bits.

Kilobyte - Is a term with dual meanings. When it describes data transfers a kilobyte is 1,000 bytes. When it describes data storage a kilobyte is 1,024 bytes.

Kilometer - Is 1,000 Meters.

Kludge or Kludges - Is a quick, not best, fix to a problem. A kludge often works for the wrong reason.

It is also the RFC headers to an email. These show where the email originated and through which servers it passed. They also may show the final destination as well as the times it passed through each server.

Kluge - See Kludge.

km - See Kilometer.


L: - Return to Index

LAN or LANS - Is a Local Area Network.

Last Recently Used - Refers to a replacement method, typically used in database management systems, where the block that has not been used for the longest time is the first to be replaced.

LCC or LCCs - Refer to Live Content Channels.

LCD - Is a Liquid Crystal Display. This low power display contains a liquid crystal solution between two sheets of polarizing material. Each crystal can open or shut when triggered by an electric current.

LED - Is a Light Emitting Diode.

Left Hand Circular Polarization - Refers to a method of radio energy emission where the electric and magnetic field vectors rotate counterclockwise about the central axis of radiation.

LEO, LEOs, or LEOS - Refer to Low Earth Orbit satellites.

LFSR or LFSRs - Refers to Linear Feedback Shit Register or Linear Feedback Shift Registers.

LGN - Refers to the Landsat Ground Network.

LGS - Refers to the Landsat 7 Ground Station.

Link or Links - Refer to explicit connections to other documents or files within a site or to other sites.

LinkLooker™ - Refers to a proprietary spider technology developed by Oasis Global, Inc. that monitors and tallies links to single or multiple websites. It has quantum capabilities and can trace and relate these links.

LISP - Refers to the List Processing language.

Live Content Channels - Refer to dynamic content typically displayed within a javascript channel.

LLC - Refers to Logical Link Control or Logic Link Control.

Local - Refers to the computer or device that the user connects to the remote, host, or server. It can provide a frame of reference for transmission flows.

LOF - Is the local oscillator frequency.

LogDog™ - Refers to a HTTP log analysis system that allows an administrator broad summary views of an internet or intranet website to detailed information specific to a network node.

It has security features built in to detect intrusion or tampering attempts.

The LogDog is used to map traffic patterns and mine valuable marketing statistics. It allows datasets to be separated or unioned together giving the controler the ability to create LAN/WAN micro/macrocosms.

Logical Condition - Refers to a boolean operator that is true if its rules are met. If not it is false.

LOS - Refers to Loss of Signal.

LP DAAC - Is the Land Process Distributed Active Archive Center.

LPS - Is the Landsat 7 Processing System.

LRU - Refers to Last Recently Used.

LSE - Refers to Launch Site Equipment.

LV - Is a Launch Vehicle.

LVD - Low Voltage Differential.

LWIR - Is Long Wavelength InfraRed.


M: - Return to Index

MAGE - Is Mechnical Aerospace Ground Equipment.

MDR - Refers to the Minimum Data Rates.

MDI - Refers to a Multiple Document Interface.

Mega - Refers to million or millions.

MegaHertz - Refers to a million Hertz. It is one million occillations/cycles per second.

member data - Is data belonging to a class.

member function - Is a function that belongs to a specific class.

Mhz - See MegaHertz.

MIB - Is a Management Information Base.

mice - Refer to more than one mouse. Mice is synonymous with mouses.

MIDI- refers to the Musical Instrument Digital Interface.

MIME - See Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.

MMO - Is the Mission Management Office.

MOC - Is the Mission Operations Center.

MODEM - Refers to a MOdulator DEModulator. Modems are used to translate digital signals to analog and visa-versa. Typically these devices are used to transfer data between computers across analog phone lines.

MOPSS - Is a Mission Operations Planning and Scheduling System.

Montmort, Pierre Remond De - See Pierre Redmond De Montmort.

MOR - Is the Missions Operations Room.

Mouse - Is a device that enables a user to point and click at links, icons, or other images on a monitor. Also, it can quickly position a cursor or similar usage pointing figure. It complements a keyboard.

Some people refer to mouses as the plural form of mouse.

MP3 - See MPEG-Layer III.

MPEG - Refers to the Moving Picture Experts Group.

MPEG-Layer III - Refers to a lossy audio file compression scheme developed by the Moving Picture Experts Groups.

Moving Picture Experts Group - Is a sub-division of the ISO/IEC. Click here to visit their website.

MPP - Refers to a Massively Parallel Processor.

MTU or MTUs - Refers to maximum transmission unit. The largest amount of data that can be sent across a specific network in a single packet.

Multiplexor - Is a switching device.

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions - Refers to a process of converting binary data to base64 so that it can be transported across the internet in an attachment within an ASCII format. It may also refer to the document or attachment itself.

Murray, Neil V. - See Neil V. Murray Ph.D.

Mutually Exclusive - Is a set of events in which if one happens the other does not. An example is the tossing of a "normal" coin. Either it is head or it is tails. It cannot be both. Another would be a hockey game where a team could either lose, tie or win. A team cannot win and lose, tie and lose, tie and win, or lose and tie and win.

MUX or mux - See Multiplexor.

N: - Return to Index

Name or Names - Refer to the address or addresses of a website.


Narendran, Paliath - See Paliath Narendran Ph.D.

NASA - Is the National Aerospace and Space Administration.

Nascom - Is NASA Communications.

NATO - Refers to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

NATO Phonetic Alphabet - Are the words used by NATO forces to represent letters when comunicating via radio, satellite, phones and other telecommunication devices. These words are used so the letters that sound similar may be distinguished from each other. The alphabet is as follows:

An example is the word Angel. In Nato phonetics it is "Alpha November Golf Echo Lima". Oasis is "Oscar Alpha Sierra India Sierra."

NCC - Is a Network Control Center.

Neil V. Murray Ph.D. - Dr. Murray received his doctorate from Syracuse University. He has contributed many great ideas to the field of computer science amoungst them are his studies in automated deduction, and negation normal form formulas. Professor Murray has accomplished major breakthroughs by using non-traditional deductive techniques such as annotated, multiple-valued and fuzzy logics.

Net - Refers to the World Wide Web, the Internet or an Intranet.

Network or Networks - Refers to connected computers or servers.

NFS - Is the Network File System. It also refers to the National Science Foundation.

NIC or NICs - Are Network Interface Cards.

NMC - Is the National Meteorological Center.

NNF - Refers to the Negation Normal Form.

NOAA - Is the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Nodal Period - Is the time elapsed between in-between two successive ascending nodes of a satellite orbit. or translator.

Nondeterminism - Refers to a computational property that may have more than one result.

No frames or nonframes - Refers to a page which may be scrollable but is not partitioned into independent viewable segments.

Noninterlaced - Refers to the technique of updating or refreshing each horizonal line on a monitor. This improves the view by reducing screen flicker or fluttering. Compare to Interlacing.

non-stop - refers to streaming when used in the context of data transfer.

Non-terminal symbol or Non-terminal symbols - Refer to symbols which represent other production rules within the BNF grammar. These symbols are typically enclosed within less-than/greater-than brackets (ie. <non-terminal>).

non-volatile memory - See nonvolatile memory.

Nonvolatile Memory - Refers to data storage that retains information even if power to it is ceased. Examples of nonvolatile memory are hard drives, CD-ROMS, DVDS, floppy disks, tape, optical storage, super and zip disks.

NOS - Is a Network Operating System.

NOT AND - Refers to a logical condition describing two staements where one of the conditions is not true and the other is.

NRZI - Is the Nonreturn-to-Zero-Inverted digital signal.

NRZ-L - Is the Nonreturn-to-Zero-Level digital signal.

NSA - Refers to the National Security Agency. The NSA is an United States Government group specializing in data encryption and decryption and telecomunications security. Click here to vist their website.

NULL Modem Cable - Refers to serial wiring used to transfer data between two computers.

NUMA - Refers to Non-Uniform Memory Access.

nurb - Refers to a Non-Uniform Rational B-spline.

NVRAM - Refers to Nonvolatile Random Access Memory. This type of memory does not lose information when the computer is turned off. Nonvolatile Memory is often used for clocks/time functions and other system and software setup options.


O: - Return to Index

OASIS™ - Is the place where Finance and Technology converge and is Online Applications Systems and Investment Services.. Overlay Asset Strategies and Investment Services and software for online and traditional investment activities.

OBD - Refers to Out of Band Data.

Object - Is an instance of a class.

OBDD - Refers to an Ordered Binary Decision Diagram.

OCD - Refers to an Operations Concept Document.

OCR - Refers Optical Character Recognition. This is computer software that once loaded can translate bitmap images into ASCII text through pattern recognization techniques.

ODB - Is an Operational Database.

OEM or OEMs - Refer to Original Equipment Manufacturers.

OLCC or OLCCs - Refer to OASIS Live Content Channels.

OLE - Refers to Object Linking and Embedding.

OMA - Refers to the Object Management Architecture.

Online - Refers to ability to communicate with another computer via telecommunications. Previously, it implied a more direct connection to a dedicated computer. Since the mid 1990s, it has taken on a broader context of being able to use the net or World Wide Web.

OOP - Is Object Oriented Programming.

Ordered Binary Decision Diagram - Is a way of expressing a decision tree where all equal sub expressions have been eliminated and all variables occur in the same ordering on all paths from the root of the Binary Decision Diagram.

OS - Refers to Operating System.

OSI - Refers to Open Systems Interconnection, which is a set of standards engineered to allow computer systems to exchange data.

P - Return to Index

PAC - Refers to Partial Aperture Calibration.

Paliath Narendran Ph.D. - Dr. Narendran received his doctorate from The Renssellaer Polytechnic Institute. His work includes research on the computational complexity of problems in the areas of equational reasoning and equational unification, especially in theories with associative and commutative operators. His focus is Formal Verification.

Palm - Often refers to a palmtop computer, a PDA or small cellular device or notebook.

PAM - Refers to Pulse Amplitude Modulation.

Parallel Transmission - Refers to moving data one character at a time.

parent - Is a process, frame, class or window that has spawned derivative frames, windows, processes, classes or children.

Pass-band - Is the frequency range handled by a satellite's transponder.

PCD - Is Payload Correction Data.

PCM - Refers to Pulse-Code Modulation.

PDA - Is a Portable Digital Assistant. A PDA is smaller than a laptop and does not have a keyboard built in like a palmtop. PDAs are typically used for sending or receiving emails, taking notes or storing addresses. Many palm devices provide a cradle or infrared device to hotsync or beam information to a desktop system. Some models come equipped with cellular-links or satellite links.

PDB - Is a Project Database.

pdf or PDF - Refers to Portable Document Format.

PDL - Refers to a Push Down List or Propositional Dynamic Logic. It is also a force equal to 0.1382 newtons.

PDU - See Protocol Data Unit.

Peer-to-Peer - Refers to a network architecture where each computer serves as a terminal and a server.

Perigee - Is the point in a satellite's orbit where it is closest to its body of rotation.

PERL - Is the Practical Extraction and Report Language. It is a programming language with many of the features of AWK, SED, C, PASCAL and the various unix shells.

PGP - Refers to Pretty Good Privacy. It is an encryption application.

Phase Delay - See Delay Distortion.

Pierre Rémond de Montmort - Is famed for his works and his book on probability Theory "Essay d'analyse sur les jeux de hazard" is a collection of games, problems and puzzles relating to this science.

Planks Constant - Is 6.625 x 10^-34 joule second.

PM - Refers to Phase Modulation.

PNG - Refers to a free compressed graphic format which has replaced the gif in many places and supported by the most current browsers.

poc or POC - Refers to Point of Contact.

POE - Is the Point of Entry.

Poisson, Simeón-Denis - See Simeón-Denis Poisson.

POP - Refers usually to Post Office Protocol or Post Office Port. Some writers have referred to POP as Point of Presence.

Portable Operating System Interface for UNIX - Is a set of standards developed by the IEEE and ISO defining how programs and operating systems should interface with each other.

POSIX - See Portable Operating System Interface for UNIX.

post-order traversal - See postorder traversal.

postorder traversal - Refers to a crawling of a tree that visits each node in the tree after visiting its children. Contrasts with preorder traversal.

Postscript - Is a file format and device language developed by Adobe used by postscript compatible devices. Many printers with the proper drivers can support this format/language.

PPP - Is Point to Point Protocol.

PNF - Is the Prenex Normal Form.

pre-order traversal - See preorder traversal.

preorder traversal - Refers to a crawling of a tree that visits each node in the tree before visiting its children. Contrasts with postorder traversal.

private data - Can be only used by members and friends of the class or its instansiation.

PRN - Is a printer file, typically in the postscript format.

Protocol Data Unit - Refers to a network communications packet.

PS - See Postscript.

PSK - Refers to Phase-shift Keying.

PSN - Refers to a Packet Switched Network.

PSTN or PSTNs - Are Public Switched Telephone Networks.

PTP - Refers to a Peer-To-Peer network.

public data - Is data that can be used by an user of the class or its instansiation.

Pull Technology - Refers to accessing or extracting information from a different location.

Push Down List - See stack.

Push Technology - Refers to information flowing to an user from a host, vendor, or server.

Q: - Return to Index

QBE - Is a Query By Example; a term typically used when speaking of RDBMSes.

QIC - Is a Quarter Inch Cartridge.

QPSK - Refers to Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying.

Quantum Computer - Refers to computers based on QBITS.

Query - Is a question or a request for information, data or other response.

Queue - Is a line or place of storage. Print jobs are often spooled to a queue based on pre-established priorities.

QUOTELIB™ - Refers to a library of commands that allows a programmer to integrate real time and delayed stock proice quotes into their applications.

QWERTY - Refers to the key scheme for the standard english languge keyboard. The other common scheme is DVORAK. Both refer to the first 5 leffters in the upper left of the alphabetic part of the keyboard. Both were ordered in attempts to optimize the speed of typing.

R: - Return to Index

RAD - Refers to Rapid Application Development.

RAID - Is a Redundant Array of Independent Devices. (aka. Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks and Redundant Array of Inexpensive Drives. ) It refers to the practice of storing data on several drives so as to improve performance and increase fault tolerance.

A RAID drive system appears to the operating system as a solitary logical hard drive. RAID technology uses the striping technique, partitioning each drive's storage space into units ranging from 512 bytes to several Megs. These strips are interleaved and addressed in order.

RAM - Refers to Random Access Memory or its amount.

RAMS® - Is an enterprise-wide risk analysis and management software system which measures, monitors and manages positions in a real-time environment.

Rapid Application Development - Refers to computer aided software engineering and computer aided software engineering tools.

RDAG - Is a Rooted Directed Acyclic Graph. RDAG is synonymous with BDD.

RDBMs or RDBMS - Are Relational Data Base Management Systems.

RDD - Is the Return Data Delay.

real - Refers to a real number.

real number or Real Number - Is a whole number and its decimal. For example, 5 is a whole number, 5.5 is a real number.

record - Is a grouping of several data types. In C this is refered to as a struct.

Reduced Ordered Binary Decision Diagram - Is an OBDD where no multiple of distinct nodes have the same variable name and successors (high and low). Also, no specific node may have identical high and low successors.

RegEx or RegExp - Refer to a regular expression.

Regular Expression - Is a way of representing data using symbols. They are often used within matching, searching or replacing algorithms.

Repeater - Refers to equipment that receives, amplifies, and re-transmits signals in order to maintain adequate signal strength.

Remote - Refers to a computer, host, or server which is viewed as spatially distant from the user. For example, a webmaster may upload new or modified files from his or her local computer to the remote host or server. It often describes a frame of reference.

Request For Comments - Are standards defining internet protocols.

RF - Is Radio Frequency.

Richard Edwin Stearns Ph.D. - Is a distinguished professor at the University of Albany who received his Doctorate from Princton University in New Jersey. He was awarded a Turing Award Citation (1993) for his paper that gives a precise definition of the complexity measure defined by computation time on Turing machines. This paper, written with the aid of Juris Hartmanis, provides the base for computational complexity theory.

Right Hand Circular Polarization - Refers to a method of radio energy emission where the electric and magnetic field vectors rotate clockwise about the central axis of radiation.

RISC - Is a Reduced Instruction Set Computer.

RFC - See Request for Comments.

ROBDD - Refers to a Reduced Ordered Binary Decision Diagram.

Robot or Robots - Are automated or dynamic programs. They may have specific or limited targets or functions. Sometimes, they may scour the web looking for new material, verifying links and other functionalities.

ROM - Is Read Only Memory

roof or roof() - Refers to a function that rounds data up to the next integer.

root, ROOT and r00t - Refers to the main supervisor level account on a UNIX system. Root, also refers to the base directory or folder in a filesystem.

Rooted Directed Acyclic Graph - See Binary Decision Diagram.

round or round() - Is typically a function that rounds up to one if .5 or greater and to zero if less then .5.

RS - Is the Reed-Solomon error detection code.

RTADS - Is the Real-time Altitude Determining System.

It can refer to Real Time Analysis Display System.

Also, it may refer to Remote Tower Alphanumeric Display System.

RTM - Is Read the Manual.

RTT - Refers to Round-Trip Time.

S: - Return to Index

SAIC - Is the Science Applications International Corporation.

SAN - Refers to Storage Area Network.

SCP - Is a Standard Control Processor.

SCTE - Is the Society of Cable and Telecommunications Engineers.

SDI - Is a Single Document Interface.

SDSL - Is a Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line (DSL).

Secured Transaction or Secured Transmission - Refers to the capability or the execution of an activity on the web which is expected to be private and not vulnerable to outsiders.

Serial Transmission - Refers to moving data one bit at a time.

SET or SETs - Refer to Secured Electronic Transactions.

SGML - Refers to Standard General Markup Language. It is also known as Standard Generalized Markup Language.

Shannon algorithm - See the Wetherall/Shannon algorithm.

Shannon, Claude Elwood - See the Wetherall/Shannon algorithm.

Shannon Expression - See the Wetherall/Shannon algorithm.

SHTTP - Is Secure HTTP or Secure Hyper Text Transfer Protocol.

shutdown - Refers to the process directly before and/or the process of turning off a system.

sid or SID - Refers to a Site In Development.

Sidereal Day - Is the amount of time it takes the Earth to rotate 360 degree about its axis. It is about 1436.07 minutes.

simulator - Is a computer program that simulates a real-world situation. Simulator may also refer to an emulator.

simulation - Is an artificial situation or enviroment. Simulation may refer to a VR world or a simulation of probabilities such as market events.

Simeón-Denis Poisson - Was an important French mathmatician and a student of Laplace whom generalized DeMoivre's formula. His generalization is known as the Poisson Approximation or Poisson distribution.

Site or Sites - Refers to an Address, Location, or URL which is developed or under construction.

SLIC or SLICs - Refer to Subscribe Line Interface Chip or Chips.

SLR - Refers to Single Lens Reflex. This term if often used in conjunction with 32mm cameras which through the user of mirrors and prisims the operator is able to view the target through the main aperture.

SMA - Refers to S-band Multiple Access.

SMP - Is Symmetric Multi-Processing.

SMTP - Is Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.

SN - Refers to a Serial Number.

It may also refer to a Space Network.

SNF - Refers to the Skolem Normal Form.

SOCC - Refers to a Satellite Operations Control Center.

Solar Day - Refers to a period of exactly 24 hours or 1440 minutes.

SPAM - Is often viewed as unsolicited email. Many compare this to junk email.

SPAMMED - Is often viewed from the perspective of a party which received unsolicited email. This email is often a part of a mass marketing campaign.

SPAMMING - Is often viewed as the act of sending unsolicited email. This multiple or vast emailing is often compared to mass junk mailings.

Spider or Spiders - Refer to programs which visit sites to collect, record or index the pages or content. Generally, spiders are considered as robots which move from link-to-link within the site. This movement is assumed to be comparable to a spider tracing a web.

Spool - Refers to a queue of jobs for printers.

SQL - Is Sequential Query Language.

SS - Refers to Satellite Segment.

SSA - Refers to S-band Single Access.

SSI - Refers to Server Side Included or Server Side Includes. Some call it Side Server Included.

SSL - Refers to Secure Socket Layer.

SSP - Refers to a Sub-satellite Point.

SSR - Refers to a Solid State Recorder.

Stearns, Richard Edwin - See Richard Edwin Stearns Ph.D.

Steven Hawkings Ph.D - Is a scientist famed for his works on singularity and theories of black holes. Hawkings claims that time travel may be possible through the use of warm holes. Dr. Hawkings has also given lectures on string theory and classical theory.

Stirling, James - See James Stirling.

Stream - Refers to the way data is delivered. Data is often said to flow in a stream.

Streaming - Refers to the flow of data, information or images. A ticker tape is one example.

STRIPS - Refers to an implementation of a General Problem Solver written in Prolog.

struct - Is a C Structure. See record.

structure - See record.

STOL - Is a Systems Test and Operations Language.

STS or STSs - Refer to Space Transportation System or Space Transportation Systems.

Sub-satellite Point - Is the surface location on the Earth between the satellite and the geo-center.

SWIR - Is Short Wavelenght InfraRed.


T: - Return to Index

TBA - Is To Be Announced.

TBD - Is To Be Determined.

TBR - Is To Be Resolved.

TBS - Is To Be Specified.

TCP - Refers to Transmission Control Protocol.

TCP/IP - Refers to Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.

TDD - Refers to Telecommunication Device for the Deaf.

TDL, TDLs, or TDLS - Refer to Top Level Domains. Examples of Top Level Domains are:

These are suffixes of the domain name.

The military has its own which is .mil.

TDMA - Refers Time Division Multiple Access.

TDRSS - Is a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System.

Tera - Refers to a trillion.

Terabytes - Refers to a trillion bytes.

Terminal - Is a computer connected to a server or mainframe. The server or mainframe controls what is displayed at the terminal. The terminal provides an interface to the server.

Terminal Node - Refers to the last position on a binary branch, linked list or network.

Terminal symbol or Terminal symbols - Refer to symbols within production rules which can never be rewritten. These symbols do not refer or call on other production rules.

Terminator - Refers to a device used to signal the end of a SCSI chain.

Theory of Everything - Is a theory that according to Dr. Steven Hawkings unites General Relativity with Quantum Theory.

The Venician - See James Stirling.

Thin Client - Refers to a computer without a hardrive. A thin client loads it's OS and software from a server. See Terminal.

TOS - Refers to Terms of Service.

TPOCC - Is a transportable payload operation control center.

Transdimensional or Trans-Dimensional - Refers to an object, device or data that crosses dimensions.

Transform-Domain Weighted Interleave Vector Quantization - Is a music format developed by Yamaha who claims it surpasses the quality and compression of MPEG-LAYER-III.

TTL - Is Time to Live. TTL is a counter within an ICMP packet.

TwinVQ - Refers to VQ.


U: - Return to Index

UDP - Refers to the User Datagram Protocol.

Is a User Datagram Packet.

Unique Visitor or Unique Visitors - Refers to a statistically indentifiable individual or unit who visits a site. It is important in determining how many unique parties are viewing a site. A site may have five hits but all by the same party. It may have five hits and four by one party and one by another and so on. It is one measurement of breadth of usage.

UPD - Refers to User Performance Data.

Upload or Uploads - Is the transfer of data, information or files from a local site to a remote site. Often viewed in terms of a local user or programmer modifying or updating files hosted at a remote server.

UPS - Refers to total uploads.

Is a User Planning System.

USB - Refers to an Universal Serial Bus.

UTC - Is Coordinated Universal Time.

URL, URLs, or URLS - Refer to Universal Resource Locations.

V: - - Return to Index

VAR or VARs - Refer to Value Added Resellers. In Financial Risk Management it refers to Value at Risk.

VCDU - Refers to a Virtual Channel Data Unit.

VDT - Refers to a Visual Display Terminal.

Venician, The - See James Stirling.

Visitor or Visitors - Refers to the number of parties who view a site. It does not necessarily take into account the uniqueness of each visitor.

VNIR - Refers to Visible and Near InfraRed.

VoIP - Refers to Voice over Internet Protocol.

Volatile Memory - Refers to data storage that does not retain information if power to it is interupted for an elongated period of time.

VPN - Is a Virtual Private Network.

VQ - Is Transform-domain Weighted Interleave Vector Quantization.

VQF - Is the file format for Transform-domain Weighted Interleave Vector Quantization.

VSAT - Is a Very Small Aperture Terminal.

W: - Return to Index

WAIS - Refers to Wide Area Information System.

WAN - Is a Wide Area Network.

WAP - Refers to Wireless Application Protocol.

Web - Refers to the connectivity or resources available to computer users.

Web Site or Website - Refers to an URL (Universal Resource Location) that offers data, information, entertainment or other computer-supported expression. Sometimes, it is referred to as the home page or home site. These may be established or maintained by organizations or individuals.

Wetherall/Shannon algorithm - Refers to a non-recursive binary tree spacing algorithm that uses two global arrays, and two local variables. It makes two traversals of a binary decision tree. The first is refered to as the "postorder" traversal. The second is the "preorder" traversal.

Windows - Is Microsofts's line of GUI OS. The Windows line includes Windows 3.x, Windows 95, 98, 2000 and NT. This also refers to any subscreen (child) in a GUI UI. This term is often used to refer to a UNIX system with XWINDOWS.

Word - In computer science a word is used when referring to memory and is typically 4 bytes. In telagraphy it refers to five characters and one space.

World Wide Web - Is the interconnection of various and disparate computers by telecommunications. Specifically it refers to the portion of the internet dictated by the HTTP protocol and can be navigated through the use of a browser such as Internet Explorer, Netscape, Lynx, Opera or Cello.

WRS - Is a World Wide Reference System.

WWW - Is the World Wide Web.

WYSIWYG - Refers to What You See Is What You Get.


XYZ: - Return to Index

X - Refers to X-Windows.

X11 - Refers to X-Windows.

X.21 - Is the CCITT description for the Physical Layer.

X.25 - Refers to the CCITT standard for Packet Switched Networks.

X.400 - Refers to the CCITT standard for Electronic Mail.

XML - Refers to eXtensible Markup Language or Extensible Markup Language.

XOR - See Exclusive OR.

xterm or x-term - Is an X-Windows terminal or the emulation mode of an X-Windows terminal.

X-Windows - Is a GUI operating system enhancement for Unix/Linux and BSD based OSes.

Y - Return to Index

Y2K - Refers to the Year 2000. It is often associated with a computer software problem frequently referred to as the Y2K bug. This is the inability of software to recognize dates greater than December 31, 1999.

Yellow Book - Refers to a ISO 9660 compliant CD-ROM format using mode 1 addressing. Compact discs utilizing this format can be played on the majority of CD-drives. This is the industry standard format for the majority of multimedia programs developed for the PC.

YMODEM - Refers to a file transfer protocol developed by Chuck Forsberg and is most commonly used between modems. It is a successor to XMODEM and has lead to the development of ZMODEM. Y-MODEM is a batch protocol and can use up to 1-kilobyte packets.

YMODEM-G - Is a streaming derivative of YMODEM engineered for errorless connections. This protocol allows for the transmitter to send packets to the receiver as fast as possible by, much like UDP, not waiting for ACKs. Errors in the transmission will cause the entire file transfer to halt.

yo-yo list - See Stack.

YP - Refers to Yellow Pages.
Z - Return to Index

Zero Assignment Langauge - Refers to a language consiting entirely of functions and no variables.

ZIF - Refers to Zero Insertion Force; a term used to describe a specific socket for Intel® Pentium chips.

Z-Index Property or Z Index Property - Refers to defining the stackable order of elements.

ZMODEM - Refers to a batch file transfer protocol with resume and error checking developed by Chuck Forsberg. This protocol does not wait for ACKs after each packet is sent, but instead it streams the data like YMODEM-G. Since this protocol supports resume, a transfer interupted in transit can pick up where it left off. This is the most preferred protocol for sending files to and from BBSes that do not support the TCP/IP FTP protocol.